Matérias no Jornal


llegal loggers have put the survival of the last isolated indigenous groups increasingly at risk

Jan Rocha in São Paulo
The Guardian
Article history

Monday 27 April 2009 00.05 BST

Lost tribe found in Brazil

Members of an unknown Amazon basin tribe brandish weapons as a flight over the rainforest passes their settlement in 2008. Photograph: Reuters

The last isolated indigenous tribes, located deep in the Amazon rainforest, may need to be contacted for the first time to protect them from illegal loggers, according to Brazil‘s agency, Fundação Nacional do Indio (Funai).

The Funai official José Carlos Meirelles, who has been monitoring the groups along the border between Brazil and Peru for over 20 years, told the Guardian that he believes their survival is increasingly at risk.

The decision to make contact with the tribes is not one to be taken lightly. The last time isolated groups were contacted in the Amazon was in 1996, but the Korubo in the Javari valley have since suffered epidemics of malaria and hepatitis, resulting in many deaths.

Establishing contact, however, could be the only deterrent from the looming danger of loggers. If friendly contact were established, Funai would build a post inside their area to deter the loggers and offer healthcare, vaccinating tribe members against the many diseases that contact with the outside world inevitably brings.

The risk comes not only from the loggers, but gold prospectors and coca planters who have also invaded the region, bringing disease and violence.

Meirelles wants to see an international boycott of mahogany products: “Americans should know that with each mahogany coffin they use to bury a dead person, they are also burying two indians,” he warned. He said 80% of the world’s mahogany comes from the region where the isolated indians live, logged illegally, but sold to consumers in Europe, Asia and the USA through legal companies.

Meirelles, 60, spends most of his time almost as isolated as the tribes, living at a base deep in the forest, powered by solar energy, linked to Funai HQ in Brasilia by radio. He has acquired an intimate knowledge of the territory, trekking through the forest and travelling the rivers and inlets to record signs of their presence and map out the area they inhabit. This area is now officially recognised by the Brazilian government and designated as an indigenous area.

Over the years he has caught many glimpses of the tribes. At first, he says, they were hostile, but now they seem to realise that he does not wish them harm, but they never go near him: “They don’t want contact.” Meirelles said he has suffered over 30 bouts of malaria in the forest and last year survived a deep arrow wound when a tribesperson shot him, apparently mistaking him for a logger.

Another threat to survival is the increasing presence of international oil companies like Anglo-French Perenco, Canada’s Petrolifera and Brazil’s Petrobras, eager to drill in a huge oilfield located in the Peruvian Amazon. The Peruvian government at first denied there were any uncontacted tribes in the area, but has now admitted their existence.

Indigenous groups have already begun fleeing across the border, invading areas of isolated tribes on the Brazilian side, leading to conflicts and deaths.

“If this situation continues, contact will become inevitable, and it is better that it happens with us than with loggers or goldpanners,” says Meirelles.

Before any contact is made, Funai is organising meetings with anthropologists, NGOs, and especially with the accultured tribes living in the same Amazon area, to build up a consensus about how and what should be done.

Meirelles estimates that there are approximately 600 indigenous people on the Brazilian side, divided among four groups, and an unknown number on the Peruvian side. Some groups are nomadic, hunting, fishing and collecting fruits and nuts from the forest. Others are sedentary, growing crops and living in settlements of straw-roofed huts, like the ones who were filmed last year firing arrows at a Funai helicopter which overflew their area.

The Brazilian indigenous population is at least 500,000. Most are in the Amazon, speaking over 180 languages and dialects, at different stages of acculturation, but until contact is made, nobody knows the origin of these particular isolated groups.

At the first global gathering of Indigenous Peoples on climate change, participants were outraged at the intensifying rate of destruction the climate crisis is having on the Earth and all peoples.

Participants reaffirmed that Indigenous Peoples are most impacted by climate change and called for support and funding for Indigenous Peoples to create adaptation and mitigation plans for themselves, based on their own Traditional Knowledge and practices. Indigenous Peoples also took a strong position on emission reduction targets of industrialized countries and against false solutions.

The majority of those attending looked towards addressing the root problem – the burning of fossil fuels – and demanded an immediate moratorium on new fossil fuel development and called for a swift and just transition away from fossil fuels.

“While the arctic is melting, Africa is suffering from drought and many Pacific Islands are in danger of disappearing.  Indigenous Peoples are locked out of national and international negotiations,” stated Jihan Gearon, Native energy and climate campaigner of the Indigenous Environmental Network. “We’re sending a strong message to the next UN Framework Convention on Climate Change this December in Copenhagen, Denmark that business as usual must end, because business as usual is killing us.  Participants at the summit stood united on sending a message to the world leaders in Copenhagen calling for a binding emission reduction target for developed countries of at least 45% below 1990 levels by 2020 and at least 95% by 2050.”

“In Alaska, my people are on the front lines of climate change and are devastated by the fossil fuel industry,” related Faith Gemmill, Executive Director of Resisting Environmental Destruction on Indigenous Lands (REDOIL).  “Alaska natives network and we are fighting back.  We recently won a major battle last week as the District Court of Columbia threw out a plan to access 83 million acres of the Outer Continental Shelf that was driven by Shell Oil. Shell has a long history of human rights violations, for which many have suffered and died, like Ken Saro-Wiwa of the Ogoni People in the Niger Delta of Africa.”

Tom Goldtooth, Indigenous Environmental Network’s Executive Director, commented, “We want real solutions to climate chaos and not the false solutions like forest carbon offsets and other market based mechanisms that will benefit only those who are making money on those outrageous schemes ”  He added, “For example one the solutions to mitigate climate change is an initiative by the World Bank to protect forests in developing countries through a carbon market regime called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation or REDD.”  He concluded, “Don’t be fooled, REDD does nothing to address the underlying drivers of deforestation.”

At a World Bank presentation at the global summit, Egberto Tabo, General Secretary of COICA, the Coordinating Body of Indigenous Organizations in the Amazon Basin denounced “the genocide caused by the World Bank in the Amazon.” Mr. Tabo also categorically rejected the inclusion of forests in the carbon market and the Bank’s funding of REDD. The World Bank’s representative, Navin Rai admitted that “the Bank has made mistakes in the past..We know that there were problems with projects like the trans-amazon highway.” But REDD, he argued would not be more of the same. However, indigenous leaders at the global summit were unconvinced by his assurances and the Work Bank presentation ended with a Western Shoshone women’s passionate appeal to the Bank to stop funding projects that endanger the survival of indigenous peoples.
Source: Global Justice Ecology
Published Monday, 27 April, 2009 – 13:19

Inquérito apura ligação de deputado com desmatamento ilegal
Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) avalia denúncia de derrubada ilegal de 1,6 mil hectares de floresta nas fazendas do deputado federal Ernandes Amorim (PTB-RO), em Machadinho D`Oeste (RO). O parlamentar nega ser dono das áreas

MT promete orçamento para combate ao trabalho escravo
Discussões sobre agenda estadual do trabalho decente serviram para reafirmar consenso intersetorial em torno das medidas do plano estadual para a erradicação do trabalho escravo, que passa por um processo de rev isão

Ações contra demarcação pressionam comunidade na Bahia
Na mira de fazendeiros da região, comunidade Barra do Parateca, situada à margem do Rio São Francisco, aguarda a finalização de relatório técnico e a delimitação da área pelo Incra para titulação de território quilombola

MANAUS – A juíza da Vara Cível da Infância e Juventude, Carla Dias, determinou, ontem (16 de Abril), a permanência da criança da etnia ianomâmi, de um ano, no Hospital Infantil Dr. Fajardo, no Centro de Manaus, segundo informação do jornal Diário do Amazonas.

Para evitar que a família da menina indígena tente invadir a unidade, a magistrada pediu o auxílio da Polícia Militar (PM). A criança apresenta um quadro clínico de hidrocefalia, tuberculose, desnutrição e pneumonia, e está internada desde o dia 13 de março.

A decisão da Justiça contraria a vontade da família da menina, que solicitou a remoção dela para a aldeia Kona, em Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (a 631 quilômetros de Manaus). Segundo Termo de Declaração, traduzido pela Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai), “a mãe, Kamila Ianomâmi, requer que sua filha seja imediatamente liberada do hospital, por quer voltar à aldeia, onde pretende que aconteça seu falecimento.

De acordo com a diretora do Hospital Dr. Fajardo, Glória Chíxaro, o estado da criança é estável e ela não corre risco de morte, se permanecer na unidade. Na sentença, a juíza Carla Dias ressaltou que o hospital deverá informar à Justiça quando a menina se recuperar. “Nós decidiremos se ela volta ou não para a aldeia”.

Fonte: Diário do Amazonas – RC

Para salvar a Amazónia é necessário remunerar os serviços efectuados pelos habitantes da floresta que a protegem, consideraram quinta-feira no Rio de Janeiro responsáveis políticos e económicos.

“A floresta do meu Estado, com um tamanho 16 vezes superior à Grã-Bretanha, pertence ao meu povo que presta um serviço ao Mundo”, declarou o governador do Estado do Amazonas, que cobre uma vasta área da floresta amazónica brasileira.

“Trabalhamos para combater o aquecimento climático mundial mas não temos mercado que pague os serviços ambientais efectuados pelos habitantes da floresta”, disse o governador Carlos Eduardo de Souza Braga, que falou durante um debate sobre o futuro da Amazónia, no âmbito da edição latino-americana do Fórum económico mundial.

Pamela Cox, Vice-Presidente do Banco Mundial para a América Latina e as Caraíbas, sublinhou que “toda a Europa ocidental cabe na Amazónia, que tem 40 por cento de área protegida e onde vivem 25 milhões de pessoas (em oito países) que devem viver e trabalhar”.

Segundo a mesma fonte, se a temperatura aumentar no Mundo, a “culpa não é apenas do Brasil”, onde se encontra 60 por cento da área da Amazónia.

“O Mundo está disposto a pagar para preservar a Amazónia? Porque razão o Brasil deve preservar a Amazónia para o resto do Mundo? Devemos ter um projecto duradouro e pagar para proteger a floresta”, sublinhou.

Cox acrescentou que a Noruega, Canadá e Alemanha já colaboram no Fundo para a Amazónia, criado em Agosto de 2008 pelo governo brasileiro, mas que isso é insuficiente e “que será necessária a colaboração do sector privado”.

O responsável do Banco Mundial afirmou que esta questão será discutida em Dezembro à Copenhaga, durante uma reunião crucial sobre as alterações climáticas.

Fonte: Lusa
Sexta-feira, 17 de Abr de 2009

Júri popular absolve comandante de barco que naufragou no Amazonas
MANAUS – O comandante do barco ‘Comandante Sales 2008’, Luis Sales da Silva, que naufragou em maio de 2008, no Amazonas, deixando 48 mortos e dois desaparecidos, foi absolvido por quatro votos a três, em júri popular realizado ontem (15), no município de Manacapuru (a 68 quilômet

»Saiba Mais

Cheia na Amazônia
Cheia histórica de rios é resultado de coincidência rara, explica pesquisador
Rio Acre baixa 15 centímetros em Rio Branco, 670 famílias estão desabrigadas

03 April 2009

At yesterday’s press conference at the Embassy of Brazil after the G20 summit, President Lula remarked that because the world financial crisis had originated in the richest countries, for the first time ever the developed and developing worlds had participated in a major international meeting on an equal footing – ‘There’s been no one claiming to know everything, as if we knew nothing,’ he said.

He added that although the International Monetary Fund and World Bank need more funds to help the poorest countries, at present the best way for the world’s richest countries to help the rest of the world would be through their own economic recovery.

President Lula also said that as a consequence of the crisis there had been a shared understanding at the summit that ‘the market is not always right’, and later emphasised the importance of regulating the world financial system ‘so that it is orientated more towards the productive rather than the speculative sector’.

Immediately before the press conference the President gave an interview to BBC Newsnight, which will be possible to view on the programme’s website until 8 April.

Source: Embassy of Brazil

G20: President Lula is famous for his metaphors about barbecue and football – The Daily Telegraph

G20 summit logistics: leaders and their retinues spend a few days in London – The Guardian

VEJA TAMBÉM:

Related

4 Apr 2009

The gaffes at G20 summit

2 Apr 2009

Larry Elliott: Just as poorer countries start to get a voice, development slips down the agenda

2 Apr 2009

Michelle Obama does London – the fashion story so far

1 Apr 2009

AudioBoo takes a G20 field trip – and stays up Just.

Prince Charles tells world leaders that they must ‘strain every sinew’ to find ways to halt the destruction of forests across the world

Amazon rainforests of Brazil

Deforestation in the Amazon, Brazil

Prince Charles today urged world leaders to support an “emergency package” to save rainforests by diverting billions of pounds every year to tropical nations such as Brazil and Indonesia.

The prince told senior figures – including the French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, and US secretary of state, Hilary Clinton – that they must “strain every sinew” to find ways to halt the destruction of forests across the world.

He took advantage of the G20 meeting in London to convene his own meeting at St James’s Palace where he announced the results of a 18-month study which aims to find a way to channel funds to protect forests as part of the fight against climate change. Emissions from tropical deforestation contribute some 17% of annual greenhouse gas emissions, more than the world’s transport sector.

Charles set up his Prince’s Rainforest Project in autumn 2007 to find ways to make natural resources “worth more alive than dead” in countries where producers are clearing land to meet a demand for goods such as beef, palm oil, and logs.

In a foreword to the report setting out the project’s findings, Prince Charles said: “If deforestation can be stopped in its tracks, then we will be able to buy ourselves some much needed time to build the low-carbon economies on which our futures depend. If we fail, global warming will occur faster and more dramatically… Knowing this I felt I should do all in my power to help find some kind of solution.”

The study suggests rainforest nations could sign up to five-year contracts under which they would commit to reduce deforestation to agreed levels. In return, they would receive annual payments. The bulk of this money, the group says, would only be paid if satellite pictures confirmed the trees were being protected as promised.

It says: “This would be a business-like arrangement, a service contract under which the world pays rainforest nations for delivery of ecosystem services, rather than providing aid in a traditional way.”

The project said about £10bn each year could be paid in total, which could be held and allocated by a new global body. Tropical countries would be free to choose how to spend the money.

Donor nations, such as Britain, would be asked to commit to long-term funding. “It would be up to individual countries to decide how to finance their obligations,” the report says. Possible options include a levy on insurance premiums, aviation and shipping fuel or auctions of carbon pollution permits. Rich nations could also offer “rainforest bonds” to big investors such as pension funds.

Tony Juniper, former head of Friends of the Earth and an adviser to the project, said such financing was less controversial than the extension of carbon markets to forests, as is planned as part of a new climate treaty. “We’re not selling credits here that governments can use to offset their emissions.”

The prince’s scheme is intended to provide funding faster than such forest credits, which could take a decade to be realised, he said.

in The Guardian

Article written by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, published in The Guardian on 28 March 2009.

No country has a larger stake in reversing the impact of global warming than Brazil. That is why it is at the forefront of efforts to come up with solutions that preserve our common future, without jeopardising the livelihood of millions of impoverished people who live off the land.

Brazil has policies aimed at conserving the Amazon forest and its priceless natural heritage. But the forest is also home to a culturally diverse population of 25 million, including some 170 indigenous peoples, along with hundreds of communities of rubber tappers, hunters and gatherers, and riverbank dwellers.

Preservationist approaches alone are ineffective in tackling deforestation, a factor causing global warming. We need to find enduring solutions. This is why we are investing in sustainable management of the forest that will provide a decent living for its inhabitants.

Just as no country can solve climate change alone, harnessing the wealth of a forest spread over eight countries requires international co-operation. For that reason, in 2008 Brazil launched the Amazon Fund. Over $20bn will be raised to finance conservation and sustainable development. These resources will be used to curb illegal logging, but also to develop alternative livelihoods. Norway has already pledged $1.1bn over 10 years for the fund. We hope others will follow.

The fight against deforestation is a central plank of our Action Plan Against Climate Change. It outlines clear targets for reducing illegal deforestation in the Amazon – a 72% cut by 2018. Brazil will thus prevent the emission of 4.8bn tonnes of carbon dioxide. The plan calls for increasing reforestation from the present 5.5m hectares to 11m in 2020. Brazil’s contribution also includes encouraging new clean energy sources, such as solar and wind.

Yet despite the long-term promise of solar and wind power, climate change requires urgent measures to avoid the doomsday scenarios described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This means drastically curbing our addiction to fossil fuels, which in the form of coal and oil burning account for 80% of greenhouse emissions. Brazil has been a trailblazer. It generates 46% of its energy from clean, renewable sources such as hydroelectricity and biomass – as against a global average of 13%.

Biofuels in particular play a central role in the global energy revolution we foresee. They are cleaner than petroleum-derived alternatives – over the last 30 years Brazil has avoided 644m tonnes of CO2 emissions by using sugarcane ethanol. Biofuels can foster economic and social development by generating secure jobs, as well as export earnings. We have shown that biofuels are compatible with growing food production and enhanced environmental protection. In Brazil, most sugarcane is grown 2,000km from the Amazon.

Brazil’s experience shows how developing countries can contribute to combating climate change globally. The incentive to act is clear, given that poorer countries already stand to suffer more harshly from the climatic disruptions largely caused by unsustainable patterns of production and consumption in richer countries. Yet this must not serve as a further excuse for rich industrialised countries to shirk their core responsibilities. It would add insult to injury if developing countries were expected to pay for the cost of reversing these dangerous trends.

As governments prepare for discussions in Copenhagen next December about how to cut global emissions, all countries must abide by the commitments of the Kyoto protocol. This means developed and developing countries have common – but differentiated – responsibilities on environmental protection. Brazil is showing the way ahead.

O levante dos camponeses indígenas é uma clara expressão do esgotamento do regime assassino do presidente Álvaro Uribe, que ao longo dos seus seis anos de poder matou mais do que as ditaduras militares, com o dinheiro e as armas do imperialismo norte-americano e do paramilitarismo28 de outubro de 2008

 

 

Após mais de uma semana de marcha que reuniu 50 mil camponeses indígenas, operários e diversos movimentos populares de todo o País, a reunião prevista para acontecer em Cali entre o presidente Álvaro Uribe e representantes indígenas não aconteceu.

O presidente colombiano aproveitou a fuga inesperada do ex-parlamentar Oscar Tulio Lizcano, refém das FARC (Forças Armadas Revolucionárias da Colômbia) por oito anos, para fugir de suas obrigações. Ele chegou a ensaiar uma chegada à Cali, capital do departamento de Valle del Cauca (Sudoeste), mas dedicou todo o seu tempo à fuga do ex-prisioneiro político das FARC e também de um guerrilheiro desertor conhecido como “Isaza”, que ajudou o ex-parlamentar a fugir.

 

A reunião estava marcada para acontecer às 9h do horário local (12h em Brasília) do domingo, na qual se discutiria uma pauta de cinco pontos reivindicados pelos camponeses, como a devolução de suas terras ancestrais e o fim dos assassinatos e perseguições contra a população indígena e camponesa. Durante o governo Uribe (no poder desde 2000), mais de 1.400 camponeses foram assassinados e dezenas de milhares foram expulsos de suas casas.

Uribe é o principal articulador de grupos paramilitares de extrema-direita responsáveis pela brutal repressão dos camponeses e operários colombianos. Foram assassinados também sindicalistas, estudantes e intelectuais de esquerda, muitos dos quais estão desaparecidos até hoje, uma verdadeira ditadura da burguesia pró-imperialista, apoiada pela CIA e pela Casa Branca contra os trabalhadores colombianos.

Os camponeses são expulsos de suas casas e suas terras são roubadas e entregues para latifundiários e empresas multinacionais que se apropriam dos recursos naturais sob o respaldo do governo, da polícia e da imprensa. Com o pretexto de combate à guerrilha – da mesma forma que o imperialismo assume a sua “luta contra o terrorismo” – o governo colombiano recebe bilhões de dólares dos EUA para manter um regime de terror contra os trabalhadores.

Os milhares de indígenas aguardavam a presença de Uribe no Centro Administrativo Municipal, mas ele só apareceu quando a maioria dos presentes já havia se dispersado, alegando compromissos extraordinários sobre a fuga do ex-parlamentar e do desertor. Uribe sugeriu ainda que a reunião transcorresse através de uma videoconferência, às portas fechadas, mas a proposta somente obteve um amplo repúdio por parte dos indígenas.

A forma de como a reunião seria realizada também foi uma evidente manobra para dispersar mais manifestantes e desmoralizar a concentração massiva. Furiosos, os indígenas presentes começaram a insultar Uribe chamando-o de “paraco, paraco” (paramilitar).

Uma próxima reunião agora está fora de cogitação, com o governo alegando estar muito ocupado com o novo fato inesperado da libertação de um refém e da deserção de um guerrilheiro. Uribe está fugindo das reivindicações dos camponeses indígenas que mostram uma clara tendência de se sublevar contra este Estado terrorista representado pelo cão de guerra do imperialismo, Álvaro Uribe.

A marcha, no entanto, não se dispersará em Cali. Com a recusa de Uribe, a multidão se locomoverá para a capital, Bogotá, onde tentarão novamente pressionar Uribe para as suas reivindicações.
 
Esgotamento do regime 

Dezenas de milhares de indígenas camponeses, operários e diversos movimentos populares percorreram 120 quilômetros pela rodovia Panamericana – que vai do Sul da Argentina até o Alasca – numa manifestação pacífica pelos seus direitos.

No dias 14, 15 e 18 de outubro, a Força Pública colombiana reprimiu brutalmente os camponeses na região de La María. Os indígenas bloquearam a rodovia e a polícia transformou uma manifestação pacífica num massacre. Mais de 120 pessoas foram feridas à bala e duas foram mortas selvagemente. Famílias estão sendo expulsas de suas casas, que são incendiadas pela polícia e os paramilitares.

Esta é a resposta mais eloqüente que o setor mais explorado e oprimido da Colômbia dá ao governo assassino desde que Uribe assumiu o poder em 2002. Desde então, o Exército e os paramilitares perseguem e exterminam os trabalhadores que se organizam contra o regime cão raivoso do imperialismo. As organizações operárias e camponesas, bem como toda a juventude não podem esperar nada de Uribe, pois este não é mais do que um mero instrumento do imperialismo dentro da América do Sul, o quintal das ações terroristas do imperialismo norte-americano.

Os trabalhadores devem atuar de forma independente, levantando desde as reivindicações mais imediatas até a expropriação do latifúndio e de toda a propriedade privada.

O movimento dos camponeses indígenas reforça também a greve dos cortadores de cana, que dura desde o dia 15 de setembro e que a imprensa burguesa insiste em fingir que não existe.
 
Depois de Uribe…

 

Na Colômbia, o governo de Álvaro Uribe é a maior expressão da política direta do imperialismo no subcontinente. Uribe está na América do Sul assim como Pervez Musharraf estava para o Paquistão, país chave para a estabilização política e econômica no Sul da Ásia. Neste país, o governo caiu totalmente apodrecido. Musharraf foi obrigado a abrir mão do seu poder de general e de presidente para conter uma revolução que continua em marcha. No caso da Colômbia, Uribe segue na mesma direção.

Caminha para sua própria liquidação e, sabendo disso, já articula uma alternativa junto ao imperialismo. Uma alternativa bastante razoável para esta troca de poder ser a ex-candidata presidencial e ex-prisioneira política, a franco-colombiana Ingrid Betancourt, que logo após ser libertada de seis anos em poder das FARC, assumiu abertamente apoiar Urine nas próximas eleições presidenciais. Este apoio pode se materializar na forma de sua própria candidatura.

Se Betancourt vier mesmo a se candidatar, a possibilidade de uma vitória eleitoral está absolutamente colocada. Símbolo da demagogia do governo terrorista colombiano contra a guerrilha, ela se tornou um ícone em todo o mundo, somado ao trânsito livre que já tinha muito antes de ser capturada pelas FARC, entre diplomatas e governos de vários países, principalmente a França, onde viveu durante alguns anos e também onde teve um romance com nada menos que o asqueroso Dominique Villepin, aquele que insuflou a ira dos imigrantes argelinos ao chamá-los de “escória”.

A mega manifestação que os camponeses indígenas colombianos estão demonstrando não é um acontecimento menor, restrita somente a este País, mas mostra o estágio terminal da crise do regime abertamente pró-imperialista na Colômbia e em toda a América Latina, como no Peru, do presidente Alan Garcia, que igualmente à Uribe, assassina os trabalhadores e ordena a polícia a atirar contra as manifestações. São resquícios da dominação direta do imperialismo, prestes a serem derrubados – pela via eleitoral ou não, tal como foi na Bolívia, Equador, Venezuela, Uruguai e Paraguai. Estes são todos governos de frente popular, ou seja, governos que se formaram sobre uma base política vinculada ao movimento de massas para contê-lo depois do fracasso dos uribes. Tratam-se de governos eleitos pela burguesia para conter a tendência revolucionária dos trabalhadores da cidade e do campo.

Página seguinte »

Seguir

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Junte-se a 25 outros seguidores